A dairy herd is typically made up of four groups of cattle:
Cows: the females, who give birth to calves and produce milk. Most of the cattle in a dairy herd are cows.
Bulls: the fathers of the dairy herd. Only a few are needed on a dairy farm, though these days most dairy farms use artificial insemination instead.
Heifers: young female cattle, they’re the ‘teenagers’ of the herd and haven’t had calves yet. They’re the second biggest group in the herd.
Calves: baby cattle. Female calves grow into heifers and then milking cows. Male calves may be sold for veal production or raised to become breeding bulls.